Borna – knez Gačana

1. Borna – knez Gačana. Knez Borna je u hrvatskoj historiografiji sve do najnovijeg doba bio negativna povijesna ličnost. To tendenciozno tumačenje se u novijoj historiografiji mijenja, a time i Bornina uloga u razvitku hrvatske državnosti.Borna se 818. u franačkim analima spominje kao 'duxGuduscanorum', tj. kao knez Gačana. Najstarije je to spominjanje etnonima Gačanin u povijesti, doduše u latinskoj izvedenici. Nešto kasnije se Borna spominje kao 'duxDalmatiae', tj. knez Dalmacije, što očito govori da je proširio svoju vlast na jugu i na kraju se 821. g. spominje kao 'duxDalmatiaeatqueLiburniae', što će reći da je konačno zavladao i Liburnijom. Borna je prvi hrvatski knez koji je zagospodario širim hrvatskim prostorom od rijeke Raše u Istri pa sve do rijeke Cetine na jugu i postavio temelje prve srednjovjekovne hrvatske države. Očito je bio odabran od moćne Franačke da uspostavi vazalnu vlast na istočnoj obali Jadrana kao protutežu dotadašnjoj bizantskoj vlasti. U Heristallu ga je s izaslanicima Gačana primao sam car Ludovik Pobožni, što govori o njegovu položaju i moći. Iako nema dokaza, drži se da je bio pokršten (premda se ne može to tvrditi i za sav narod). Borna je očito bio na razini povijesnoga zadatka i iskoristio povijesnu priliku utemeljiti srednjovjekovnu hrvatsku državu. Lik je izradio akademski kipar Mate Čvrljak iz Labina.;


1. Borna – The Duke of the Guduscani. Until fairly recently, Duke Borna has been seen as a negative historical personality in Croatian historiography. This tendentious interpretation has changed in recent years, and thus Borna's role in the development of Croatian statehood has changed as well. Borna was mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals in 818, where he was referred to as "dux Guduscanorum," or the Duke of the Guduscani. It is the oldest mention of the ethnonym "Guduscan" in history, albeit in the Latin derivation. Somewhat later, Borna was referred to as "dux Dalmatiae," or the Duke of Dalmatia, which obviously speaks to the fact that he expanded his power to the south. Finally, in 821, he was mentioned as "dux Dalmatiae atque Liburniae," which is to say that he finally reigned over Liburnia as well. Borna was the first Croatian duke to rule the wider Croatian region from the Raša River in Istria to the Cetina River in the south, and to lay the foundations of the first medieval Croatian state. He was obviously chosen by the powerful Francia to establish a vassal state on the eastern Adriatic coast as a counterbalance to the previous Byzantine rule. Together with the delegates of the Guduscani, Borna was received by the emperor Louis the Pious himself in Heristal, which testifies to Borna's position and power. Although no evidence for this exists in the available records, it is assumed that he was baptized (although this cannot be claimed for his subjects). Borna was apparently up to the historical task, and exploited the historical opportunity to establish a medieval Croatian state. The bas-relief sculpture was created by sculptor Mate Čvrljak from Labin, Croatia.